Latest Jobs, Papers, Testing Services Updates

Monday, 17 September 2018

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists

Contributions of Muslim Scientists Muhammad Bin Musa Al Khwarzimi:
Made lasting contributions in the fields of Mathematics, Astronomy, Music, Geography and History. He composed the oldest works on Arithmetic and on Algebra. The oldest Mathematic book composed by him is "Kitab ul jama wat tafriq" He is the first person who used zero and wrote"Hisab ul jabr Wal Muqabla" which is conceived to be an outstanding work on the subject which included analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations. In the field of Astronomy he compiled his own tables which formed the basis of later astronomical pursuits in both East and West. He also contributed in the field of geographical science by writing a noteworthy book KItab ul Surat al ard. In Arabic. His book ―kitab al Tarik" is also a memorable work regarding history.

Contributions of Muslim Scientists Al Beruni:
Born in Afghanistan Beruni made original important contributions to science. He is conceived to be the most prominent scientists of the Islamic world who wrote around 150 books on various significant subjects concerning human existence. These subjects include Mathematics, History, Archeology, Biology, Geology, Che m is try, Religion etc. He discussed the behavior of earth, moon, and planets in his book "Qanoon Almasudi" which is also considered as an outstanding astronomical encyclopedia. He also discovered seven different ways of finding the directions of north and south and discovered mathematical techniques to determine exactly the beginning of the seasons. Another notable discovery he made was that the speed of light is faster than sound .His wide range of scientific knowledge is also revealed through his books" kitab al saidana" and "kitab al jawahar" dealing with medicine and the types of gems their gravity respectively. He was a prolific writer whose works showed his versatility as a scientist.

Contributions OF Muslim Scientists Al Razi:
The famous philosopher and a notable surgeon of the Muslim world, Zakriya Al Razi was born in Ray near modern Theran Iran. His eagerness for knowledge lead him to the study of Alchemy and Chemistry, philosophy, logic, Mathematics and Physics. He was a pioneer in many areas of medicine and treatment of health sciences in general, and in particular he worked alot in the fields of paeditrics, obsterics and ophthalmology. Al razi was the first person to introduce the use of Alcohol for medical purposes and opium for the objective of giving anesthesia to his patients. In the field of ophthalmology too Al razi gave an account of the operation for the extraction of the cataract and also the first scientist to discover the effect of the intensity of light on the eye. The modern studies confirm his understanding on the subject thus making him a great physician of all the times.

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Abu Ali Ibn E Sina:
Endowed with great powers of absorbing and retaining knowledge this Muslim scholar also made valuable contributions to the field of science. He is considered to be the founders of Medicine and also added his great efforts to the fields of Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicinial Chemistry, Philosophy, Palae ontology and Music. His most famous book is "Al Qannun" which brings out the features of human physiology and medicine. Sina is also considered as a father of the science of Geology on account of his invaluable book on mountains in which he discussed matters relating to earth's crust and gave scientific reasons for earthquakes. He is the author of 238 books which are fine instances of his thoughts regarding various subjects in diverse ways.

Contributions OF Muslim Scientists Jabir Bin Hayan:
Introduced experimental research in chemical science which immensely added its rapid development and made him the Father of Chemistry. He devised methods for preparation of important chemicals like hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and white lead. Jabir's work also deal with the refinement of metals ,preparation of steel, dyeing of cloth and leather, use of magnese dioxide in glass making, distillation of vinegar to concentrate acetic acid. Jabir also explained scientifically two principle functions of chemistry, i.e., calcination, and reduction and registered a marked improvement in the methods of evaporation, sublimation, distillation and crystallization He wrote more than 100 books which are one of the most outstanding contributions in the field of science especially the chemical science.

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Abdul Hassan Ibn Al Haitham:
One of the most outstanding Mathematicians, Physiologists, and Opticians of Islam. He contributed to the realms of medicine and philosophy. He wrote more than 200 scientific works on diverse subjects. Haitham examined the refraction of light rays through transparent objects including air and water. Infact he was the first scientist to elaborate two laws of reflection of light He made a number of monumental discoveries in the field of optics ,including one which locates retina as the seat of vision. His book on optics "Kitab Al Manazir" vividly shows his grip on the subject. He constructed a pinhole camera and studied formation of images .Due to his noteworthy contributions he is regarded as one of the prolific Muslim scientists of all times.

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Omar Al Khayam:
He was an outstanding Mathematician and Astronomer. He was also known as a poet, philosopher and a physician. He travelled to the great centers of learning of the era i.e. Samrakund, Bukhara, and Ispahan.He classified many algebraic equations based on their complexity and recognized thirteen different forms of cubic equation. He also classified algebraic theories of parallel lines. On the invitation of Sultan Jalal-ud- Din, he introduced the Jilali calendar which has an error of one day in 3770 years. He also developed accurate methods for determination of gravity as a poet too, he is known for his Rubaiyat.He made great contributions in the development of mathematics and analytical geometry which benefitted Europe several years later.

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Nasir Ud Din Tusi:
Al tusi was one of the greatest scientists, Mathematicians, Astronomers, Philosophers, Theologians and physicians of his time. He was a prolific writer and wrote many treatises on varied subjects like Algebra, Arithmetic, Trignometry, Geometery, Logic, Met aphy sics, medicine, ethics and Theology. He served as a minister of Halaku Khan and persuaded him to establish an observatory and library after the destruction of Baghdad. He worked at the observatory and prepared precise tables regarding the motion of the planets. These are also known as "Tables of Khan"

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Zia Ud Din Ibn Baitar:
Was a famous botanist and pharmacopeias of middle ages. Because of his intensive travels, he was able to discover many plant species. He wrote many books regarding his field of specialty and is always considered as a prominent scientist among his Muslim counterparts۔


See also

  • Islamic science
  • Islamic medicine
  • Islamic scholars
  • Other Science
Share:

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Zia Ud Din Ibn Baitar

Was a famous botanist and pharmacopeias of middle ages. Because of his intensive travels, he was able to discover many plant species. He wrote many books regarding his field of specialty and is always considered as a prominent scientist among his Muslim counterparts.
Ḍiyāʾ Al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad al-Mālaqī, commonly known as Ibn al-Bayṭār (1197–1248 AD) was an Andalusian Arab pharmacist, botanist, physician and scientist. His main contribution was to systematically record the additions made by Islamic physicians in the Middle Ages, which added between 300 and 400 types of medicine to the one thousand previously known since antiquity.

Life
Born in the city of Benalmádena in Andalusia (Muslim-controlled Spain) at the end of the twelfth century. His name "Ibn al-Baitar" is Arabic for "son of the veterinarian", which was his father job. Ibn al-Bayṭār learned botany from the Málagan botanist Abū al-ʿAbbās al-Nabātī with whom he started collecting plants in and around Spain. Al-Nabātī was responsible for developing an early scientific method, introducing empirical and experimental techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and separating unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations. Such an approach was thus adopted by Ibn al-Bayṭār.

In 1219, Ibn al-Bayṭār left Málaga, travelling to the coast of North Africa and as far as Anatolia, to collect plants. The major stations he visited include Bugia, Constantinople, Tunis, Tripoli, Barqa and Antalya.

After 1224, he entered the service of the Ayyubid Sultan al-Kāmil and was appointed chief herbalist. In 1227 al-Kāmil extended his domination to Damascus, and Ibn al-Bayṭār accompanied him there, which provided him an opportunity to collect plants in Syria. His botanical researches extended over a vast area including Arabia and Palestine. He died in Damascus in 1248.

Ibn al-Bayṭār used the name "snow of China" (in Arabic, thalj al-Ṣīn) to describe saltpetre while writing about gunpowder.

Works
Kitāb al-Jāmiʿ li-Mufradāt al-Adwiya wa-l-Aghdhiya
Ibn al-Bayṭār’s largest and most widely read book is his Compendium on Simple Medicaments and Foods (Arabic: كتاب الجامع لمفردات الأدوية والأغذية‎). It is a pharmacopoeia (pharmaceutical encyclopedia) listing 1400 plants, foods, and drugs, and their uses. It is organized alphabetically by the name of the useful plant or plant component or other substance—a small minority of the items covered are not botanicals. For each item, Ibn al-Bayṭār makes one or two brief remarks himself and gives brief extracts from a handful of different earlier authors about the item. The bulk of the information is compiled from the earlier authors. The book contains references to 150 previous Arabic authors, as well as 20 previous Greek authors. One of the sources he quotes most frequently is the Materia Medica of Dioscorides who was inspired by Magon, another Amazigh, having also written an Arabic commentary on the work. Another book often cited by him is Book Two of the Canon of Medicine of Ibn Sīnā (Aveicenna). Both of those sources have similarities in layout and subject matter with Ibn al-Bayṭār's own book, but Ibn al-Bayṭār's treatments are richer in detail, and a large minority of Ibn al-Bayṭār's useful plants or plant substances are not covered at all by Dioscorides or Ibn Sīnā. In modern printed edition, the book is more than 900 pages long. As well as in Arabic, it was published in full in translation in German and French in the 19th century.

Ibn al-Bayṭār provides detailed chemical information on the Rosewater and Orangewater production. He mentions: The scented Shurub (Syrup) was often extracted from flowers and rare leaves, by means of using hot oils and fat, they were later cooled in cinnamon oil. The oils used were also extracted from sesame and olives. Essential oil was produced by joining various retorts, the steam from these retorts condensed, combined and its scented droplets were used as perfume and mixed to produce the most costly medicines.

Kitāb al-Mughnī fī al-Adwiya al-Mufrada
Ibn al-Bayṭār’s second major work is Kitāb al-Mughnī fī al-Adwiya al-Mufrada, an encyclopedia of Islamic medicine which incorporates his knowledge of plants used extensively for the treatment of various ailments, including diseases related to the head, ear, eye, etc.

Other works
Mīzān al-Ṭabīb.
Risāla fī l-Aghdhiya wa-l-Adwiya.
Maqāla fī al-Laymūn, Treatise on the Lemon (also attributed to Ibn Jumayʿ); translated into Latin by Andrea Alpago as Ebn Bitar de malis limonis (Venice 1593).
Tafsīr Kitāb Diyāsqūrīdūs, a commentary on the first four books of Dioscorides' "Materia Medica.
Share:

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Nasir Ud Din Tusi:

Al tusi was one of the greatest scientists, Mathematicians, Astronomers, Philosophers, Theologians and physicians of his time. He was a prolific writer and wrote many treatises on varied subjects like Algebra, Arithmetic, Trignometry, Geometery, Logic, Met aphy sics, medicine, ethics and Theology. He served as a minister of Halaku Khan and persuaded him to establish an observatory and library after the destruction of Baghdad. He worked at the observatory and prepared precise tables regarding the motion of the planets. These are also known as "Tables of Khan"
Share:

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Omar Al Khayam:

He was an outstanding Mathematician and Astronomer. He was also known as a poet, philosopher and a physician. He travelled to the great centers of learning of the era i.e. Samrakund, Bukhara, and Ispahan.He classified many algebraic equations based on their complexity and recognized thirteen different forms of cubic equation. He also classified algebraic theories of parallel lines. On the invitation of Sultan Jalal-ud- Din, he introduced the Jilali calendar which has an error of one day in 3770 years. He also developed accurate methods for determination of gravity as a poet too, he is known for his Rubaiyat.He made great contributions in the development of mathematics and analytical geometry which benefitted Europe several years later.
Share:

Contributions Of Muslim Scientists Abdul Hassan Ibn Al Haitham

One of the most outstanding Mathematicians, Physiologists, and Opticians of Islam. He contributed to the realms of medicine and philosophy. He wrote more than 200 scientific works on diverse subjects. Haitham examined the refraction of light rays through transparent objects including air and water. Infact he was the first scientist to elaborate two laws of reflection of light He made a number of monumental discoveries in the field of optics ,including one which locates retina as the seat of vision. His book on optics "Kitab Al Manazir" vividly shows his grip on the subject. He constructed a pinhole camera and studied formation of images .Due to his noteworthy contributions he is regarded as one of the prolific Muslim scientists of all times.


Share:

Contributions OF Muslim Scientists Jabir Bin Hayan

Introduced experimental research in chemical science which immensely added its rapid development and made him the Father of Chemistry. He devised methods for preparation of important chemicals like hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and white lead. Jabir's work also deal with the refinement of metals ,preparation of steel, dyeing of cloth and leather, use of magnese dioxide in glass making, distillation of vinegar to concentrate acetic acid. Jabir also explained scientifically two principle functions of chemistry, i.e., calcination, and reduction and registered a marked improvement in the methods of evaporation, sublimation, distillation and crystallization He wrote more than 100 books which are one of the most outstanding contributions in the field of science especially the chemical science.

Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (Arabic/Persian جابر بن حیان, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721 – c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. Born in Tus, he later traveled to Yemen and Kufa where he lived most of his life. He has been described as "the father of early chemistry".

As early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jabir was in dispute in Islamic circles.[6] His name was Latinized as "Geber" in the Christian West and in 13th-century Europe an anonymous writer, usually referred to as Pseudo-Geber, produced alchemical and metallurgical writings under the pen-name Geber.

Early references
In 988 Ibn al-Nadim compiled the Kitab al-Fihrist which mentions Jabir as a spiritual follower, companion and as a student to Jafar as-Sadiq, the sixth Shia Imam. In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers claimed Jabir was one of their own members. Another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are pseudographical. Their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim.[6] Joining al-Nadim in asserting a real Jabir; Ibn-Wahshiyya ("Jaber ibn Hayyn al-Sufi ...book on poison is a great work...") Rejecting a real Jabir; (the philosopher c. 970) Abu Sulayman al-Mantiqi claims the real author is one al-Hasan ibn al-Nakad al-Mawili. The 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the writings attributed to Jabir doubtful.[8]

Life and background
According to the philologist-historian Paul Kraus (1904-1944), Jabir cleverly mixed in his alchemical writings unambiguous references to the Ismaili or Qarmati movement. Kraus wrote, “Let us first notice that most of the names we find in this list have undeniable affinities with the doctrine of Shi'i Gnosis, especially with the Ismaili system”. Henry Corbin believes that Jabir ibn Hayyan was an Ismaili. Jabir was a natural philosopher who lived mostly in the 8th century; he was born in Tus, Khorasan, in Persia, well known as Iran then ruled by the Umayyad Caliphate. Jabir in the classical sources has been variously attributed as al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi. And sometimes also, al-Tartusi, al-Tarsusi or al-Harrani. There is a difference of opinion as to whether he was an Arab from Kufa who lived in Khurasan, or a Persian from Khorasan who later went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian Sabian origin and later lived in Persia and Iraq. In some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a pharmacist of the Arabian Azd tribe who emigrated from Yemen to Kufa (in present-day Iraq). while Henry Corbin believes Geber seems to have been a non-Arab client of the 'Azd tribe. Hayyan had supported the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, and was sent by them to the province of Khorasan to gather support for their cause. He was eventually caught by the Umayyads and executed. His family fled to Yemen, perhaps to some of their relatives in the Azd tribe, where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran, mathematics and other subjects. Jabir's father's profession may have contributed greatly to his interest in alchemy.

After the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa. He began his career practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir (from the noble Persian family Barmakids) of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end. When that family fell from grace in 803, Jabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death.

It has been asserted that Jabir was a student of the sixth Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari;[6][21] however, other scholars have questioned this theory.

The Jabirian corpus

In total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan.[23] Following the pioneering work of Paul Kraus, who demonstrated that a corpus of some several hundred works ascribed to Jābir were probably a medley from different hands,[8]:3[24] mostly dating to the late 9th and early 10th centuries, many scholars believe that many of these works consist of commentaries and additions by his followers,[citation needed] particularly of an Ismaili persuasion.[25] On the other hand, contemporary scholar Syed Nomanul Haq refuses the multiplicity of authors hypothesis, and says that Kraus has misrepresented the Jabirian corpus for three main reasons : a) he hasn't inspected the bibliographies correctly, considering that there have been many leaps (in one instance, we have no titles between 500 and 530), so, all in all, the numbers are more over 500 than close to 3000 ; b) in many cases, a part or chapter of a book has been counted as a book itself, like with the Kitab al-Jumal al-'Ishrin (book of twenty maxims), which has been counted for 20 books and c) finally, many of the supposed "books" are not so in the formal sense, the Kitab al-Sahl occupying a single paragraph and many others few folios. Syed Nomanul Haq concludes that "this rough investigation makes it abundantly clear that we should view with a great deal of suspicion any arguments for a plurality of authors which is based on Kraus’ inflated estimate of the volume of the Jabirian corpus."[26]

The scope of the corpus is vast: cosmology, music, medicine, magic, biology, chemical technology, geometry, grammar, metaphysics, logic, artificial generation of living beings, along with astrological predictions, and symbolic Imâmî myths.[8]:5

The 112 Books dedicated to the Barmakids, viziers of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. This group includes the Arabic version of the Emerald Tablet, an ancient work that proved a recurring foundation of and source for alchemical operations. In the Middle Ages it was translated into Latin (Tabula Smaragdina) and widely diffused among European alchemists.
The Seventy Books, most of which were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages. This group includes the Kitab al-Zuhra ("Book of Venus") and the Kitab Al-Ahjar ("Book of Stones").
The Ten Books on Rectification, containing descriptions of alchemists such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
The Books on Balance; this group includes his most famous 'Theory of the balance in Nature'.
Jabir states in his Book of Stones (4:12) that "The purpose is to baffle and lead into error everyone except those whom God loves and provides for". His works seem to have been deliberately written in highly esoteric code (see steganography), so that only those who had been initiated into his alchemical school could understand them. It is therefore difficult at best for the modern reader to discern which aspects of Jabir's work are to be read as ambiguous symbols, and what is to be taken literally. Because his works rarely made overt sense, the term gibberish is believed to have originally referred to his writings (Hauck, p. 19).

People
Jabir's interest in alchemy was inspired by his teacher Ja'far as-Sadiq. When he spoke about alchemy, he would say "my master Ja'far as-Sadiq taught me about calcium, evaporation, distillation and crystallization, and everything I learned in alchemy was from my master Ja'far as-Sadiq."[citation needed] Imam Jafar was famed for his depth and breadth of knowledge. In addition to his knowledge of Islamic sciences, Imam Jafar was well educated in natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, anatomy, chemistry (alchemy), and other subjects. The foremost Islamic alchemist Jabir bin Hayyan was his most prominent student. Other famous students of Imam Jafar were Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik Ibn Anas, the founders of two Sunni schools of jurisprudence, and Wasil ibn Ata, the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought.

Imam Jafar was known for his liberal views on learning, and was keen to debate with scholars of different faiths and of different beliefs. Some Islamic scholars have gone so far as to call Imam Jafar Saddiq as the root of most of Islamic jurisprudence, having a massive influence on Hanafi, Maliki and Shia schools of thought extending well into mainstream Hanbali and Shafi'i thought. Imam Jafar also attained a surpassing knowledge in astronomy and in the science of medicine.

Jabir professed to have drawn his alchemical inspiration from earlier writers, both legendary and historic, on the subject.[27] In his writings, Jabir pays tribute to Egyptian and Greek alchemists Zosimos, Democritus, Hermes Trismegistus, Agathodaemon, but also Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Pythagoras, and Socrates, as well as the commentators Alexander of Aphrodisias, Simplicius, Porphyry and others.[8]:5

A huge pseudo-epigraphic literature of alchemical books was composed in Arabic, among which the names of Persian authors also appear like Jāmāsb, Ostanes, Mani, testifying that alchemy-like operations on metals and other substances were also practiced in Persia. The great number of Persian technical names (zaybaq = mercury, nošāder = sal-ammoniac) also corroborates the idea of an important Iranian root of medieval alchemy.[28] Ibn al-Nadim reports a dialogue between Aristotle and Ostanes, the Persian alchemist of Achaemenid era, which is in Jabirian corpus under the title of Kitab Musahhaha Aristutalis.[29] Ruska had suggested that the Sasanian medical schools played an important role in the spread of interest in alchemy.[28] He emphasizes the long history of alchemy, "whose origin is Arius ... the first man who applied the first experiment on the [philosopher's] stone... and he declares that man possesses the ability to imitate the workings of Nature" (Nasr, Seyyed Hussein, Science and Civilization of Islam).

Theories
Jabir's alchemical investigations ostensibly revolved around the ultimate goal of takwin — the artificial creation of life. The Book of Stones includes several recipes for creating creatures such as scorpions, snakes, and even humans in a laboratory environment, which are subject to the control of their creator. What Jabir meant by these recipes is unknown.[citation needed]

Jabir's alchemical investigations were theoretically grounded in an elaborate numerology related to Pythagorean and Neoplatonic systems.[citation needed] The nature and properties of elements were defined through numeric values assigned to the Arabic consonants present in their name.

By Jabir's time Aristotelian physics had become Neoplatonic. Each Aristotelian element was composed of these qualities: fire was both hot and dry, earth, cold and dry, water cold and moist, and air, hot and moist. This came from the elementary qualities which are theoretical in nature plus substance. In metals two of these qualities were interior and two were exterior. For example, lead was cold and dry and gold was hot and moist. Thus, Jabir theorized, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, a different metal would result. Like Zosimos, Jabir believed this would require a catalyst, an al-iksir, the elusive elixir that would make this transformation possible — which in European alchemy became known as the philosopher's stone.[8]

According to Jabir's mercury-sulfur theory, metals differ from each in so far as they contain different proportions of the sulfur and mercury. These are not the elements that we know by those names, but certain principles to which those elements are the closest approximation in nature.[30] Based on Aristotle's "exhalation" theory the dry and moist exhalations become sulfur and mercury (sometimes called "sophic" or "philosophic" mercury and sulfur). The sulfur-mercury theory is first recorded in a 7th-century work Secret of Creation credited (falsely) to Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana). This view becomes widespread.[31] In the Book of Explanation Jabir says

the metals are all, in essence, composed of mercury combined and coagulated with sulphur [that has risen to it in earthy, smoke-like vapors]. They differ from one another only because of the difference of their accidental qualities, and this difference is due to the difference of their sulphur, which again is caused by a variation in the soils and in their positions with respect to the heat of the sun

Holmyard says that Jabir proves by experiment that these are not ordinary sulfur and mercury.[17]

The seeds of the modern classification of elements into metals and non-metals could be seen in his chemical nomenclature. He proposed three categories:

"Spirits" which vaporise on heating, like arsenic (realgar, orpiment), camphor, mercury, sulfur, sal ammoniac, and ammonium chloride.
"Metals", like gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, iron, and khar-sini (Chinese iron)
Non-malleable substances, that can be converted into powders, such as stones.
The origins of the idea of chemical equivalents might be traced back to Jabir, in whose time it was recognized that "a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount of base.
Share:

Friday, 14 September 2018

Eid-ul-Fitr, Any Festivals English Essay for B.A



Outline:
1. Importance of different festivals by 
            i. religious مذہبی
            ii, psychological نفسیاتی
2. General activities 
3. Eid-ul-Fitr 3. Eid-ul-Fitr
4. How people celebrate Eid 
5. Economic aspect معاشی پہلو
6. Conclusion نتیجہ

People belonging to different castes (ذات) creeds and countries celebrate different festivals(تہوار). These festivals have both religious and psychological importance (مذہبی  اور نفسیاتی اہمیت) On these occasions, people perform certain rites (رسومات) and thank God for the blessings that He bestows(عطا کرنا) upon them. They gather together at some place and offer prayers according to the teachings and dogmas itis of their religion. The rich - give alms rt to the poor. Relatives, friends and neighbours pay special visits to one another. They enjoy and rejoice up in the same way and in the same manner; Thus such festivals bring all the members of society on one platform and remove all social discrimination.تمام سماجی امتیازات کو ختم کر دیتے ہیں۔

Such festivals have also a psychological significance. We need some moments of rest after the day's hectic activities تیز ہیجانی سرگرمیاں. When routine work begins creating a sense of monotonymer یکسانیت and boredom اکتاہٹ in us, we desire to have some change in our life. This is necessary to purify پاک کرنا us. So usually fairs are held on this occasion. People play different games. Picnic spots are thronged with people (لوگوں سے بھر جاتی ہے). Children celebrate the occasion with bangs and booms دھوم دھماکہ کے ساتھ. Sometimes older people also join them. They dance and sing with the children, Dainty, and delicious dishes are prepared at home. Sweets and cakes -specially prepared for the occasion are sent to the near and dear ones عزیزو اقارب Houses are also decorated. So such festivals serve as an 'overhaul مکمل دیکھ بھال of our mind , body and soul and bring about positive and constructive تعمیری changes in our personality.
Eid-ul-Fitr is also such an occasion that is celebrated every year with full religious fervour (مذہبی جوش). The Eid comes every year with the message of hope, love, equality and universal  brotherhood (بھائی چارہ). As it comes after the month of fasting Luhes, it has especial spiritual significance. It symbolizes man ' s moral triumph over his animal instincts.  انسان کی حیوانی فطرت پر اس کی اخلاقی فتح کی علامت
The day begins with early rising, a bath, and wearing a new or at least the cleanest possible clothes and spraying perfume (پرفیوم چھڑکنا) be on oneself, It.. follows a donation of 'fitrana' to the deserving (مستحق) Then every Muslim proceeds (بڑھنا) for prayers. There is considerable hustle and bustle (رونق) in the prayer ground. To the gay colours (چمکتے رہنا) of the children's dresses are now added balloons and toys. "Khutba" follows the prayer. In this address the speaker throws light on the importance of fasting (روزہ) and the blessings of God that it brings. Rest of the day (دن کا باقی حصہ) we or buy is spent in meeting friends and relatives and exchanging gifts with them (تحائف کے تبادلے).
Apart from the religious purpose, the occasion of Eid provides economic activity. There is a great shopping spree (جوش) for ten days. Both the rich and the poor make purchases (خریداری) for the members of their families and especially for their children who also receive 'Eidi' from their elders on the Eid day. The shopkeepers reap a rich harvest of profits (خوب منافع کماتے ہیں). With the approach of Ramazan and Eid prices shoot up (قیمتیں بڑھ جاتی ہیں) This trend must be checked (اس رجحان کو روکنا چاہئے) Wesbul. We must keep it in mind the spirit of such festivals (ایسے تہواروں کی روح کو سمجھنا چاہئے). They are not meant for personal aggrandizement (اپنی شان بڑھانا) or personal gains. The main purpose of these festivals is to bring hope and happiness in the life of those from whom fate has turned its face.قسمت سے جن سے منہ موڑ لیاہے

Share: